Marxism by Antonio Gramsci (1892-1937)
His full name was Antonio Francesco Gramsci.
He was a Neo (New) Marxist who was of Italian descent. He was a founding member of the Italian Communist Party.
He was imprisoned for over 12 years, and during that time, he authored a book of essays called "Prison Notebooks" published in 1945. He writes about history, Marxism, religion, folklore, the French Revolution, fascism, and other topics in this book.
His five-part module comprises some of Gramsci's most important writings, such as "Civil Society," "Hegemony," "Role of Intellectuals," "Crisis," and "American and Fordism."
He was the creator of the type of Marxism known as Humanistic Marxism or Western Marxism.
He developed the idea of an intermediary domain between the state and the economy. Hegemony and civil society so make up this intermediary sphere, which is found in the superstructure.
In other words, in the contemporary age, cultural hegemony is the substructure or base structure, and he challenged economic determinism, dialectical materialism, and pattern. In other words, there may be religion, caste, or ideology as a foundation structure on which superstructure is created.
Gramsci challenged the notion that the economic system governs society.
In contrast to conventional Marxism, which holds that people are not free, he thinks that human agency is significant and that people may make decisions on their own. It is also known as Humanistic Marxism because of its emphasis on human will. He, therefore, attacked determinism. READ MORE…