Marxism by Michel Foucault (1926–1984)
In France, Paul-Michel Foucault was born. He created the "Groupe d'Information sur les Prisons" in 1971 along with his life partner Daniel Defert and a few acquaintances. Foucault's participation in politics started at this point. His issues continued throughout the rest of his life and included LGBT rights, the resettlement of refugees, and jail conditions. He was also a French philosopher and historian who was regarded as one of the most important and contentious thinkers of the post-World War II era.
Book- ‘Power and knowledge’
Power is not centralized in one area or in the possession of specific people, according to Michel Foucault. However, power is present in all social interactions and is not only used by the government. Knowledge is closely related to power. Power and knowledge are thus mutually reinforcing. In order to gather more data, exercise more control over its citizens, and produce new sorts of knowledge, the state must have power. Discourse development is required for this. Contrarily, Foucault only perceives power as acting when people have some degree of freedom; he does not just think of power in terms of coercion.
Book- ‘Discipline and Punish’
He studied how the nature and intent of punishments changed throughout the eighteenth century. By the 19th century, the focus of punishment shifted from the body to the soul, with the goal of reform. Instead of focusing on what they had done, people were judged for who they were. The motive for the crime started to come into consideration. READ MORE…